Raccoon Key in Georgia site of first Fort St. Augustine?

If the French fort of La Caroline was actually on the Altamaha River in Georgia and not the St. John’s River in Florida then from where did the Spanish launch their assault on the fort? Clearly this attack could not have been launched from modern-day St. Augustine, Florida because the distances involved are too great […]

The Founding of St. Augustine by Francisco Lopez de Mendoza

Original Source: “The Founding of St. Augustine.” In Old South Leaflets Volume IV. Boston: Directors of the Old South work. Old South Meeting House. MEMOIR OF THE HAPPY RESULT AND PROSPEROUS VOYAGE OF THE FLEET COMMANED BY THE ILLUSTRIOUS CAPTAIN-GENERAL PEDRO MENEDEZ DE AVILES, WHICH SAILED FROM CADIZ ON THE MORNING OF THURSDAY, JUNE 28TH, FOR THE […]

How Natives Conducted Their Warfare at St. Augustine

Spanish eyewitness accounts of the tactics used by Indian tribes when attacking their outpost of St. Augustine give a fascinating new view of Native American life at the time of first contact. The typical view is that Native Americans were outmatched by the European’s superior weapons and tactics but these eyewitness accounts contradict these views. It […]

The Letters of Pedro Menendez Aviles

Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society (January Meeting, 1894, pp. 416-468) Florida. Years 1565 and 1566. F. 14. D. N° 40. Seven letters written to the King by the General Pero Menendez de Aviles, from the 13th of August 1565, to the 30th of the next January, giving a report to him of the success […]

Original Fort St. Augustine Found in Coastal Georgia?

Does a newspaper account from 1817, rediscovered in 2010, reveal the location of the original Fort St. Augustine as being in Georgia not Florida? As I noted in my article “Quest for Fort Caroline,” all of the written eyewitness accounts of the location of Fort Caroline suggested it was on the Altamaha River in Georgia […]

Fort St. Augustine Eyewitness Accounts

If the true location of the French Fort Caroline is on the Altamaha River near Darien, Georgia and not the St. Johns River near Jacksonville, Florida (as I argued here and here) then this presents a question: where was the original Fort St. Augustine? According to the Spanish general Pedro Menendez, it required two days […]

Hernando D’Escalante Fontaneda

Hernando de Escalante Fontaneda (c. 1536 – after 1575, dates uncertain) was a Spanish shipwreck survivor who lived among the Indians of Florida for 17 years. His memoir [version 1] [version 2], written in 1575, is one of the most valuable contemporary accounts of American Indian life from that period. Around 1549, when Fontaneda was […]

Narrative of Guido De Las Bazares

Narrative of  The voyage made by GUIDO DE LAS BAZARES, to discover ports and bays on the coast of Florida, for the safety of the troops to be sent there, in the name of his Majesty, PHILIP II., King of Spain, under the orders of Don LUIS DE VELASCO, Viceroy of Mexico, 1558. IT was […]

Memoir of Fontaneda (Version 2)

(Translation by Buckingham Smith, 1854) “Very Powerful Lord: Memoir of the things, the shore, and the Indians of Florida, to describe which, none of the many persons who have coasted that country know how to describe it. The Islands of Yucayo and of Ahite fall on one side of the Channel of the Bahama. There […]
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