Raccoon Key in Georgia site of first Fort St. Augustine?

If the French fort of La Caroline was actually on the Altamaha River in Georgia and not the St. John’s River in Florida then from where did the Spanish launch their assault on the fort? Clearly this attack could not have been launched from modern-day St. Augustine, Florida because the distances involved are too great […]

River of May in GA or FL?

The French claimed that their colony of La Caroline (Fort Caroline) was built along the banks of a river they named the River of May. Thus finding this river is the first task one must undertake to locate Fort Caroline and the many Native American villages they interacted with. The River of May was first discovered and […]

Original Fort St. Augustine Found in Coastal Georgia?

Does a newspaper account from 1817, rediscovered in 2010, reveal the location of the original Fort St. Augustine as being in Georgia not Florida? As I noted in my article “Quest for Fort Caroline,” all of the written eyewitness accounts of the location of Fort Caroline suggested it was on the Altamaha River in Georgia […]

Fort St. Augustine Eyewitness Accounts

If the true location of the French Fort Caroline is on the Altamaha River near Darien, Georgia and not the St. Johns River near Jacksonville, Florida (as I argued here and here) then this presents a question: where was the original Fort St. Augustine? According to the Spanish general Pedro Menendez, it required two days […]

On the Nature of the Apalachites

“Digression on the Nature of the Country of the Apalachites, their Manners, their Ancient and Their New Religion” from Histoire Naturelle and Morale des Antilles de l’Amerique by Rochefort. The Caribbians were originally Inhabitants of the Septentrional part of America, of that Country which is now called Florida: They, came to Inhabit the islands after […]

Quest for Fort Caroline

Current academic consensus holds that the French settlement of Fort Caroline was located on the St. Johns River in modern-day Jacksonville, Florida. Yet details in both French and Spanish written accounts as well as details in drawings left behind by the colony’s resident artist, Jacques Le Moyne, have always contradicted this location. These accounts suggest […]

Memoir Of Hernando D’Escalante Fontaneda

On the Country and Ancient Indian Tribes Of FLORIDA 1575 TRANSLATED FROM TERNAUX COMPAN’S FRENCH TRANSLATION FROM THE ORIGINAL MEMOIR IN SPANISH CHAPTER I. MONSEIGNEUR: I HAVE the honor to inform you that Florida and the Lucayan Islands are situate on one side of the Bahama (old) Channel, which passes between Havanna (Cuba) and Florida. But nearer the […]

Georgia Before Oglethorpe

You’ve reached a one-stop source for current information about the state of Georgia’s little-known first two centuries after first European contact. My intent in this site is to provide visitors with a wide range of resource materials, historical and otherwise, for research into the almost-forgotten era of Georgia history when American Indians, Spanish missionaries, and English traders briefly shared the land now known as Georgia. It was a turbulent and often tragic era, when plagues and slave raiding destroyed indigenous chiefdoms while Spain and England conducted war by proxy for the Southeastern borderlands. Nevertheless, it was precisely this era which set the stage for the establishment of Georgia by James Edward Oglethorpe in 1733.